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pstring.h

/*
 * pstring.h
 *
 * Character string class.
 *
 * Portable Windows Library
 *
 * Copyright (c) 1993-1998 Equivalence Pty. Ltd.
 *
 * The contents of this file are subject to the Mozilla Public License
 * Version 1.0 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in
 * compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at
 * http://www.mozilla.org/MPL/
 *
 * Software distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS"
 * basis, WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See
 * the License for the specific language governing rights and limitations
 * under the License.
 *
 * The Original Code is Portable Windows Library.
 *
 * The Initial Developer of the Original Code is Equivalence Pty. Ltd.
 *
 * Portions are Copyright (C) 1993 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
 * All Rights Reserved.
 *
 * Contributor(s): ______________________________________.
 *
 * $Log: pstring.h,v $
 * Revision 1.85  2005/12/15 21:14:34  dsandras
 * Fixed from Alexander Larsson <alexl _AT__ redhat.com> for gcc 4.1 compilation. Thanks!
 *
 * Revision 1.84  2005/11/30 12:47:38  csoutheren
 * Removed tabs, reformatted some code, and changed tags for Doxygen
 *
 * Revision 1.83  2005/11/25 03:43:47  csoutheren
 * Fixed function argument comments to be compatible with Doxygen
 *
 * Revision 1.82  2005/09/18 11:05:36  dominance
 * include/ptlib/channel.h, include/ptlib/pstring.h, src/ptlib/common/contain.cxx,
 * src/ptlib/common/pchannel.cxx:
 *   correct the STL defined checking to use proper syntax.
 *
 * include/ptlib/object.h:
 *   re-add typedef to compile on mingw
 *
 * make/ptlib-config.in:
 *   import a long-standing fix from the Debian packs which allows usage of
 *   ptlib-config without manually adding -lpt for each of the subsequent
 *   projects
 *
 * Revision 1.81  2004/12/22 04:04:36  dereksmithies
 * Modify description of parameters for PString::Replace()
 *
 * Revision 1.80  2004/11/23 11:33:08  csoutheren
 * Fixed problem with RemoveAt returning invalid pointer in some cases,
 * and added extra documentation on this case.
 * Thanks to Diego Tartara for pointing out this potential problem
 *
 * Revision 1.79  2004/10/21 13:04:20  rjongbloed
 * Fixed possibility of const operator[] on PStringArray returning a NULL reference. This
 *   function should return a non-lvalue PString anyway as it is const!
 *
 * Revision 1.78  2004/08/16 08:49:59  csoutheren
 * Removed error when compiling with gcc
 *
 * Revision 1.77  2004/08/16 06:40:59  csoutheren
 * Added adapters template to make device plugins available via the abstract factory interface
 *
 * Revision 1.76  2004/06/01 05:54:18  csoutheren
 * Added <vector> and <string>
 *
 * Revision 1.75  2004/06/01 05:21:38  csoutheren
 * Added conversions between std::string and PString, and vector<PString> and PStringArray
 *
 * Revision 1.74  2004/05/04 11:10:36  rjongbloed
 * Fixed usage of MakeEmpty() with PStringStream.
 *
 * Revision 1.73  2004/04/18 04:33:36  rjongbloed
 * Changed all operators that return BOOL to return standard type bool. This is primarily
 *   for improved compatibility with std STL usage removing many warnings.
 *
 * Revision 1.72  2004/04/11 13:26:25  csoutheren
 * Removed namespace problems and removed warnings for Windows <string>
 *
 * Revision 1.71  2004/04/09 06:38:10  rjongbloed
 * Fixed compatibility with STL based streams, eg as used by VC++2003
 *
 * Revision 1.70  2004/04/09 03:42:34  csoutheren
 * Removed all usages of "virtual inline" and "inline virtual"
 *
 * Revision 1.69  2004/04/03 06:54:22  rjongbloed
 * Many and various changes to support new Visual C++ 2003
 *
 * Revision 1.68  2004/02/23 00:44:38  csoutheren
 * A completely different, other regex include hack to avoid requiring
 * the sources when using a header-file only environment
 *
 * Revision 1.67  2004/02/23 00:26:05  csoutheren
 * Finally, a generic and elegant fix for the regex include hacks.  Thanks to Roger Hardiman
 *
 * Revision 1.66  2004/02/11 05:09:14  csoutheren
 * Fixed problems with regex libraries on Solaris, and with host OS numbering
 * being a quoted string rather than a number. Thanks to Chad Attermann
 * Fixed problems SSL detection problems thanks to Michal Zygmuntowicz
 *
 * Revision 1.65  2004/02/08 11:13:11  rjongbloed
 * Fixed crash in heavily loaded multi-threaded systems using simultaneous sorted
 *   lists, Thanks Federico Pinna, Fabrizio Ammollo and the gang at Reitek S.p.A.
 *
 * Revision 1.64  2004/01/18 13:43:48  rjongbloed
 * Fixed broken PString::MakeEmpty() function and moved implementations to .inl file.
 *
 * Revision 1.63  2004/01/17 18:15:24  csoutheren
 * Fixed multi-threading problem with PString::Empty
 * Created PString::MakeEmpty for efficient emptying of existing strings
 *
 * Revision 1.62  2004/01/16 13:24:37  csoutheren
 * Changed PString::Empty to be thread-safe
 * Fixed PContainer::SetMinSize and PAbstractArray::SetSize, thanks to 123@call2ua.com
 * Fixed PString::FindLast, thanks to Andreas Sikkema
 *
 * Revision 1.61  2003/12/13 23:08:46  csoutheren
 * Changed PRegularExpression to allow a copy constructor and operator =
 *
 * Revision 1.60  2003/12/10 03:28:50  csoutheren
 * Removed compile time warning under Linux
 *
 * Revision 1.59  2003/12/07 05:50:49  csoutheren
 * Blocked operator = for PRegularExpression
 *
 * Revision 1.58  2003/12/04 13:10:38  csoutheren
 * Made PRegularExpression copy constructor private to avoid accidental usage (and subsequent crash)
 *
 * Revision 1.57  2003/05/14 00:46:47  rjongbloed
 * Added constructor to string lists/arrays etc that takes a single PString.
 *
 * Revision 1.56  2003/03/31 01:23:56  robertj
 * Added ReadFrom functions for standard container classes such as
 *   PIntArray and PStringList etc
 *
 * Revision 1.55  2003/03/05 08:48:32  robertj
 * Added PStringArray::ToCharAray() function at suggestion of Ravelli Rossano
 *
 * Revision 1.54  2002/11/12 09:17:44  robertj
 * Added PString::NumCompare() as functional equivalent of strncmp().
 * Added PSortedStringList::GetNextStringsIndex() to do searches of binary
 *   tree on partal strings.
 *
 * Revision 1.53  2002/10/31 05:53:44  robertj
 * Now comprehensively stated that a PString is ALWAYS an 8 bit string as
 *   there are far too many inheerent assumptions every to make it 16 bit.
 * Added UTF-8/UCS-2 conversion functions to PString.
 *
 * Revision 1.52  2002/09/16 01:08:59  robertj
 * Added #define so can select if #pragma interface/implementation is used on
 *   platform basis (eg MacOS) rather than compiler, thanks Robert Monaghan.
 *
 * Revision 1.51  2002/08/14 00:43:39  robertj
 * Added ability to have fixed maximum length PStringStream's so does not do
 *   unwanted malloc()'s while outputing data.
 *
 * Revision 1.50  2002/04/09 02:30:18  robertj
 * Removed GCC3 variable as __GNUC__ can be used instead, thanks jason Spence
 *
 * Revision 1.49  2002/02/15 04:29:31  robertj
 * Added PString::Empty() to return the primordial empty string. Saves on a
 *   couple of memory allocations for every empty string ever used.
 *
 * Revision 1.48  2002/01/26 23:55:55  craigs
 * Changed for GCC 3.0 compatibility, thanks to manty@manty.net
 *
 * Revision 1.47  2002/01/22 01:03:57  craigs
 * Added operator += and operator + functions to PStringArray and PStringList
 * Added AppendString operator to PStringArray
 *
 * Revision 1.46  2001/10/17 05:09:22  robertj
 * Added contructors and assigmnent operators so integer types can be
 *   automatically converted to strings.
 *
 * Revision 1.45  2001/08/11 07:57:30  rogerh
 * Add Mac OS Carbon changes from John Woods <jfw@jfwhome.funhouse.com>
 *
 * Revision 1.44  2001/04/18 04:10:15  robertj
 * Removed hash function for caseless strings as confuses mixed dictionaries.
 *
 * Revision 1.43  2001/04/18 01:20:58  robertj
 * Fixed problem with hash function for short strings, thanks Patrick Koorevaar.
 * Also fixed hash function for caseless strings.
 *
 * Revision 1.42  2001/02/21 03:38:37  robertj
 * Added ability to copy between various string lists/arrays etc during construction.
 *
 * Revision 1.41  2001/02/13 04:39:08  robertj
 * Fixed problem with operator= in container classes. Some containers will
 *   break unless the copy is virtual (eg PStringStream's buffer pointers) so
 *   needed to add a new AssignContents() function to all containers.
 *
 * Revision 1.40  1999/08/22 12:13:43  robertj
 * Fixed warning when using inlines on older GNU compiler
 *
 * Revision 1.39  1999/05/28 14:01:22  robertj
 * Added initialisers to string containers (list, sorted list and set).
 *
 * Revision 1.38  1999/03/09 09:34:05  robertj
 * Fixed typo's.
 *
 * Revision 1.37  1999/03/09 02:59:50  robertj
 * Changed comments to doc++ compatible documentation.
 *
 * Revision 1.36  1999/02/16 08:11:09  robertj
 * MSVC 6.0 compatibility changes.
 *
 * Revision 1.35  1998/09/23 06:21:12  robertj
 * Added open source copyright license.
 *
 * Revision 1.34  1998/01/26 00:33:46  robertj
 * Added FindRegEx function to PString that returns position and length.
 * Added Execute() functions to PRegularExpression that take PINDEX references instead of PIntArrays.
 * Added static function to PRegularExpression to escape all special operator characters in a string.
 *
 * Revision 1.33  1998/01/05 10:39:35  robertj
 * Fixed "typesafe" templates/macros for dictionaries, especially on GNU.
 *
 * Revision 1.32  1997/12/11 13:32:47  robertj
 * Added AsUnsigned() function to convert string to DWORD.
 *
 * Revision 1.31  1997/12/11 10:29:49  robertj
 * Added type correct Contains() function to dictionaries.
 *
 * Revision 1.30  1997/07/08 13:13:47  robertj
 * DLL support.
 *
 * Revision 1.29  1997/06/10 11:36:32  craigs
 * Added inline statements to allow compilation uder Unix
 *
 * Revision 1.28  1997/06/08 04:48:58  robertj
 * Added regular expressions.
 * Fixed non-template class descendent order.
 *
 * Revision 1.27  1997/05/16 12:10:12  robertj
 * Fixed G++ compatibility bug.
 *
 * Revision 1.26  1996/10/08 13:13:38  robertj
 * Added operator += and &= for char so no implicit PString construction.
 *
 * Revision 1.25  1996/09/14 12:52:39  robertj
 * Added operator! for !IsEmpty().
 *
 * Revision 1.24  1996/08/17 10:00:25  robertj
 * Changes for Windows DLL support.
 *
 * Revision 1.23  1996/05/26 03:27:02  robertj
 * Compatibility to GNU 2.7.x
 *
 * Revision 1.22  1996/03/31 08:51:22  robertj
 * Added RemoveAt() function to remove entries from dictionaries.
 *
 * Revision 1.21  1996/03/10 13:15:50  robertj
 * Added operator() to template version.
 *
 * Revision 1.20  1996/02/19 13:17:33  robertj
 * Removed PCaselessString hash function to fix dictionary match failure.
 * Added operator() to do string dictionary lookup with default value.
 *
 * Revision 1.19  1996/02/08 12:19:16  robertj
 * Added new operators to PString for case insensitive compare and spaced concatenate.
 *
 * Revision 1.18  1996/01/24 14:43:15  robertj
 * Added initialisers to string dictionaries.
 *
 * Revision 1.17  1996/01/23 13:15:17  robertj
 * Added Replace() function to strings.
 * Mac Metrowerks compiler support.
 * String searching algorithm rewrite.
 *
 * Revision 1.16  1996/01/02 12:04:31  robertj
 * Mac OS compatibility changes.
 * Removed requirement that PArray elements have parameterless constructor..
 *
 * Revision 1.15  1995/12/23 03:46:23  robertj
 * Added operators for include and exclude from string set.
 *
 * Revision 1.14  1995/10/14 15:02:56  robertj
 * Changed arrays to not break references, but strings still need to.
 *
 * Revision 1.13  1995/06/17 11:13:08  robertj
 * Documentation update.
 *
 * Revision 1.12  1995/06/17 00:43:40  robertj
 * Added flag for PStringArray constructor to create caseless strings.
 *
 * Revision 1.11  1995/06/04 12:34:57  robertj
 * Better C++ compatibility (with BC++)
 *
 * Revision 1.10  1995/04/02 09:27:23  robertj
 * Added "balloon" help.
 *
 * Revision 1.9  1995/03/14 12:42:16  robertj
 * Updated documentation to use HTML codes.
 *
 * Revision 1.8  1995/03/12  04:44:39  robertj
 * Fixed use of PCaselessString as dictionary key.
 *
 * Revision 1.7  1995/02/05  00:48:09  robertj
 * Fixed template version.
 *
 * Revision 1.6  1995/01/15  04:50:20  robertj
 * Added inlines on friend functions, required by GNU compiler.
 *
 * Revision 1.5  1995/01/10  11:43:41  robertj
 * Removed PString parameter in stdarg function for GNU C++ compatibility.
 *
 * Revision 1.4  1995/01/09  12:33:44  robertj
 * Removed unnecesary return value from I/O functions.
 * Changed function names due to Mac port.
 *
 * Revision 1.3  1994/12/21  11:53:21  robertj
 * Documentation and variable normalisation.
 *
 * Revision 1.2  1994/12/12  13:13:13  robertj
 * Fixed bugs in PString mods just made.
 *
 * Revision 1.1  1994/12/12  09:59:37  robertj
 * Initial revision
 *
 */

#ifdef P_USE_PRAGMA
#pragma interface
#endif

#include <string>
#include <vector>

///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
// PString class

class PStringArray;
class PRegularExpression;

/**The character string class. It supports a wealth of additional functions
   for string processing and conversion. Operators are provided so that
   strings can virtually be treated as a basic type.

   An important feature of the string class, which is not present in other
   container classes, is that when the string contents is changed, that is
   resized or elements set, the string is "dereferenced", and a duplicate
   made of its contents. That is this instance of the array is disconnected
   from all other references to the string data, if any, and a new string array
   contents created. For example consider the following:
\begin{verbatim}
          PString s1 = "String"; // New array allocated and set to "String"
          PString s2 = s1;       // s2 has pointer to same array as s1
                                 // and reference count is 2 for both
          s1[0] = 's';           // Breaks references into different strings
\end{verbatim}
   at the end s1 is "string" and s2 is "String" both with reference count of 1.

   The functions that will "break" a reference are #SetSize()#,
   #SetMinSize()#, #GetPointer()#, #SetAt()# and
   #operator[]#.

   Note that the array is a '\0' terminated string as in C strings. Thus the
   memory allocated, and the length of the string may be different values.

   Also note that the PString is inherently an 8 bit string. The character set
   is not defined for most operations and it may be any 8 bit character set.
   However when conversions are being made to or from 2 byte formats then the
   PString is assumed to be the UTF-8 format. The 2 byte format is nominally
   UCS-2 (aka BMP string) and while it is not exactly the same as UNICODE
   they are compatible enough for them to be treated the same for most real
   world usage.
 */

00376 class PString : public PCharArray {
  PCLASSINFO(PString, PCharArray);

//  using namespace std;

  public:
  /**@name Construction */
  //@{
    /**Construct an empty string. This will have one character in it which is
       the '\0' character.
     */
    PINLINE PString();

    /**Create a new reference to the specified string. The string memory is not
       copied, only the pointer to the data.
     */
    PINLINE PString(
      const PString & str  ///< String to create new reference to.
    );

    /**Create a new string from the specified std::string
     */
    PINLINE PString(
      const std::string & str
    );

    /**Create a string from the C string array. This is most commonly used with
       a literal string, eg "hello". A new memory block is allocated of a size
       sufficient to take the length of the string and its terminating
       '\0' character.

       If UCS-2 is used then each char from the char pointer is mapped to a
       single UCS-2 character.
     */
    PString(
      const char * cstr ///< Standard '\0' terminated C string.
    );

    /**Create a string from the UCS-2 string array.
       A new memory block is allocated of a size sufficient to take the length
       of the string and its terminating '\0' character.
     */
    PString(
      const WORD * ustr ///< UCS-2 null terminated string.
    );

    /**Create a string from the array. A new memory block is allocated of
       a size equal to #len# plus one which is sufficient to take
       the string and a terminating '\0' character.

       If UCS-2 is used then each char from the char pointer is mapped to a
       single UCS-2 character.

       Note that this function will allow a string with embedded '\0'
       characters to be created, but most of the functions here will be unable
       to access characters beyond the first '\0'. Furthermore, if the
       #MakeMinimumSize()# function is called, all data beyond that first
       #'\0'# character will be lost.
     */
    PString(
      const char * cstr,  ///< Pointer to a string of characters.
      PINDEX len          ///< Length of the string in bytes.
    );

    /**Create a string from the UCS-2 array. A new memory block is allocated
       of a size equal to #len# plus one which is sufficient to take
       the string and a terminating '\0' character.

       Note that this function will allow a string with embedded '\0'
       characters to be created, but most of the functions here will be unable
       to access characters beyond the first '\0'. Furthermore, if the
       #MakeMinimumSize()# function is called, all data beyond that first
       #'\0'# character will be lost.
     */
    PString(
      const WORD * ustr,  ///< Pointer to a string of UCS-2 characters.
      PINDEX len          ///< Length of the string in bytes.
    );

    /**Create a string from the UCS-2 array. A new memory block is allocated
       of a size equal to #len# plus one which is sufficient to take
       the string and a terminating '\0' character.

       Note that this function will allow a string with embedded '\0'
       characters to be created, but most of the functions here will be unable
       to access characters beyond the first '\0'. Furthermore, if the
       #MakeMinimumSize()# function is called, all data beyond that first
       #'\0'# character will be lost.
     */
    PString(
      const PWORDArray & ustr ///< UCS-2 null terminated string.
    );

    /**Create a string from the single character. This is most commonly used
       as a type conversion constructor when a literal character, eg 'A' is
       used in a string expression. A new memory block is allocated of two
       characters to take the char and its terminating '\0' character.

       If UCS-2 is used then the char is mapped to a single UCS-2
       character.
     */
    PString(
      char ch    ///< Single character to initialise string.
    );

    /**Create a string from the integer type.
       This will create a simple base 10, shortest length conversion of the
       integer (with sign character if appropriate) into the string.
      */
    PString(
      short n   ///< Integer to convert
    );

    /**Create a string from the integer type.
       This will create a simple base 10, shortest length conversion of the
       integer (with sign character if appropriate) into the string.
      */
    PString(
      unsigned short n   ///< Integer to convert
    );

    /**Create a string from the integer type.
       This will create a simple base 10, shortest length conversion of the
       integer (with sign character if appropriate) into the string.
      */
    PString(
      int n   ///< Integer to convert
    );

    /**Create a string from the integer type.
       This will create a simple base 10, shortest length conversion of the
       integer (with sign character if appropriate) into the string.
      */
    PString(
      unsigned int n   ///< Integer to convert
    );

    /**Create a string from the integer type.
       This will create a simple base 10, shortest length conversion of the
       integer (with sign character if appropriate) into the string.
      */
    PString(
      long n   ///< Integer to convert
    );

    /**Create a string from the integer type.
       This will create a simple base 10, shortest length conversion of the
       integer (with sign character if appropriate) into the string.
      */
    PString(
      unsigned long n   ///< Integer to convert
    );

    /**Create a string from the integer type.
       This will create a simple base 10, shortest length conversion of the
       integer (with sign character if appropriate) into the string.
      */
    PString(
      PInt64 n   ///< Integer to convert
    );

    /**Create a string from the integer type.
       This will create a simple base 10, shortest length conversion of the
       integer (with sign character if appropriate) into the string.
      */
    PString(
      PUInt64 n   ///< Integer to convert
    );

 
    enum ConversionType {
      Pascal,   // Data is a length byte followed by characters.
      Basic,    // Data is two length bytes followed by characters.
      Literal,  // Data is C language style string with \ escape codes.
      Signed,   // Convert a signed integer to a string.
      Unsigned, // Convert an unsigned integer to a string.
      Decimal,  // Convert a real number to a string in decimal format.
      Exponent, // Convert a real number to a string in exponent format.
      Printf,   // Formatted output, sprintf() style function.
      NumConversionTypes
    };
    /* Type of conversion to make in the conversion constructors.
     */

    /* Contruct a new string converting from the spcified data source into
       a string array.
     */
    PString(
      ConversionType type,  ///< Type of data source for conversion.
      const char * str,    ///< String to convert.
      ...                 ///< Extra parameters for #sprintf()# call.
    );
    PString(
      ConversionType type,  ///< Type of data source for conversion.
      long value,           ///< Integer value to convert.
      unsigned base = 10    ///< Number base to use for the integer conversion.
    );
    PString(
      ConversionType type,  ///< Type of data source for conversion.
      double value,         ///< Floating point value to convert.
      unsigned places       ///< Number of decimals in real number output.
    );

    /**Assign the string to the current object. The current instance then
       becomes another reference to the same string in the #str#
       parameter.
       
       @return
       reference to the current PString object.
     */
    PString & operator=(
      const PString & str  ///< New string to assign.
    );

    /**Assign the C string to the current object. The current instance then
       becomes a unique reference to a copy of the #cstr# parameter.
       The #cstr# parameter is typically a literal string, eg:
\begin{verbatim}
          myStr = "fred";
\end{verbatim}
       @return
       reference to the current PString object.
     */
    PString & operator=(
      const char * cstr  ///< C string to assign.
    );

    /**Assign the character to the current object. The current instance then
       becomes a unique reference to a copy of the character parameter. eg:
\begin{verbatim}
          myStr = 'A';
\end{verbatim}
       @return
       reference to the current PString object.
     */
    PString & operator=(
      char ch            ///< Character to assign.
    );

    /**Assign a string from the integer type.
       This will create a simple base 10, shortest length conversion of the
       integer (with sign character if appropriate) into the string.
      */
    PString & operator=(
      short n   ///< Integer to convert
    );

    /**Assign a string from the integer type.
       This will create a simple base 10, shortest length conversion of the
       integer (with sign character if appropriate) into the string.
      */
    PString & operator=(
      unsigned short n   ///< Integer to convert
    );

    /**Assign a string from the integer type.
       This will create a simple base 10, shortest length conversion of the
       integer (with sign character if appropriate) into the string.
      */
    PString & operator=(
      int n   ///< Integer to convert
    );

    /**Assign a string from the integer type.
       This will create a simple base 10, shortest length conversion of the
       integer (with sign character if appropriate) into the string.
      */
    PString & operator=(
      unsigned int n   ///< Integer to convert
    );

    /**Assign a string from the integer type.
       This will create a simple base 10, shortest length conversion of the
       integer (with sign character if appropriate) into the string.
      */
    PString & operator=(
      long n   ///< Integer to convert
    );

    /**Assign a string from the integer type.
       This will create a simple base 10, shortest length conversion of the
       integer (with sign character if appropriate) into the string.
      */
    PString & operator=(
      unsigned long n   ///< Integer to convert
    );

    /**Assign a string from the integer type.
       This will create a simple base 10, shortest length conversion of the
       integer (with sign character if appropriate) into the string.
      */
    PString & operator=(
      PInt64 n   ///< Integer to convert
    );

    /**Assign a string from the integer type.
       This will create a simple base 10, shortest length conversion of the
       integer (with sign character if appropriate) into the string.
      */
    PString & operator=(
      PUInt64 n   ///< Integer to convert
    );

    /**Make the current string empty
      */
    virtual PString & MakeEmpty();

    /**Return an empty string.
      */
    static PString Empty();
  //@}

  /**@name Overrides from class PObject */
  //@{
    /**Make a complete duplicate of the string. Note that the data in the
       array of characters is duplicated as well and the new object is a
       unique reference to that data.
     */
    virtual PObject * Clone() const;

    /**Get the relative rank of the two strings. The system standard function,
       eg strcmp(), is used.

       @return
       comparison of the two objects, #EqualTo# for same,
       #LessThan# for #obj# logically less than the
       object and #GreaterThan# for #obj# logically
       greater than the object.
     */
    virtual Comparison Compare(
      const PObject & obj   ///< Other PString to compare against.
    ) const;

    /**Output the string to the specified stream.
     */
    virtual void PrintOn(
      ostream & strm  ///< I/O stream to output to.
    ) const;

    /**Input the string from the specified stream. This will read all
       characters until a end of line is reached. The end of line itself is
       {\bf not} placed in the string, however it {\bf is} removed from
       the stream.
     */
    virtual void ReadFrom(
      istream & strm  ///< I/O stream to input from.
    );

    /**Calculate a hash value for use in sets and dictionaries.
    
       The hash function for strings will produce a value based on the sum of
       the first three characters of the string. This is a fairly basic
       function and make no assumptions about the string contents. A user may
       descend from PString and override the hash function if they can take
       advantage of the types of strings being used, eg if all strings start
       with the letter 'A' followed by 'B or 'C' then the current hash function
       will not perform very well.

       @return
       hash value for string.
     */
    virtual PINDEX HashFunction() const;
  //@}

  /**@name Overrides from class PContainer */
  //@{
    /**Set the size of the string. A new string may be allocated to accomodate
       the new number of characters. If the string increases in size then the
       new characters are initialised to zero. If the string is made smaller
       then the data beyond the new size is lost.

       Note that this function will break the current instance from multiple
       references to an array. A new array is allocated and the data from the
       old array copied to it.

       @return
       TRUE if the memory for the array was allocated successfully.
     */
    virtual BOOL SetSize(
      PINDEX newSize  ///< New size of the array in elements.
    );

    /**Determine if the string is empty. This is semantically slightly
       different from the usual #PContainer::IsEmpty()# function. It does
       not test for #PContainer::GetSize()# equal to zero, it tests for
       #GetLength()# equal to zero.

       @return
       TRUE if no non-null characters in string.
     */
    virtual BOOL IsEmpty() const;

    /**Make this instance to be the one and only reference to the container
       contents. This implicitly does a clone of the contents of the container
       to make a unique reference. If the instance was already unique then
       the function does nothing.

       @return
       TRUE if the instance was already unique.
     */
    virtual BOOL MakeUnique();
  //@}


  /**@name Size/Length functions */
  //@{
    /**Set the actual memory block array size to the minimum required to hold
       the current string contents.
       
       Note that this function will break the current instance from multiple
       references to the string. A new string buffer is allocated and the data
       from the old string buffer copied to it.

       @return
       TRUE if new memory block successfully allocated.
     */
    BOOL MakeMinimumSize();

    /**Determine the length of the null terminated string. This is different
       from #PContainer::GetSize()# which returns the amount of memory
       allocated to the string. This is often, though no necessarily, one
       larger than the length of the string.
       
       @return
       length of the null terminated string.
     */
    PINLINE PINDEX GetLength() const;

    /**Determine if the string is NOT empty. This is semantically identical
       to executing !IsEmpty() on the string.

       @return
       TRUE if non-null characters in string.
     */
    bool operator!() const;
  //@}

  /**@name Concatenation operators **/
  //@{
    /**Concatenate two strings to produce a third. The original strings are
       not modified, an entirely new unique reference to a string is created.
       
       @return
       new string with concatenation of the object and parameter.
     */
    PString operator+(
      const PString & str   ///< String to concatenate.
    ) const;

    /**Concatenate a C string to a PString to produce a third. The original
       string is not modified, an entirely new unique reference to a string
       is created. The #cstr# parameter is typically a literal
       string, eg:
\begin{verbatim}
          myStr = aStr + "fred";
\end{verbatim}

       @return
       new string with concatenation of the object and parameter.
     */
    PString operator+(
      const char * cstr  ///< C string to concatenate.
    ) const;

    /**Concatenate a single character to a PString to produce a third. The
       original string is not modified, an entirely new unique reference to a
       string is created. The #ch# parameter is typically a
       literal, eg:
\begin{verbatim}
          myStr = aStr + '!';
\end{verbatim}

       @return
       new string with concatenation of the object and parameter.
     */
    PString operator+(
      char ch   ///< Character to concatenate.
    ) const;

    /**Concatenate a PString to a C string to produce a third. The original
       string is not modified, an entirely new unique reference to a string
       is created. The #cstr# parameter is typically a literal
       string, eg:
\begin{verbatim}
          myStr = "fred" + aStr;
\end{verbatim}

       @return
       new string with concatenation of the object and parameter.
     */
    friend PString operator+(
      const char * cstr,    ///< C string to be concatenated to.
      const PString & str   ///< String to concatenate.
    );

    /**Concatenate a PString to a single character to produce a third. The
       original string is not modified, an entirely new unique reference to a
       string is created. The #c# parameter is typically a literal,
       eg:
\begin{verbatim}
          myStr = '!' + aStr;
\end{verbatim}

       @return
       new string with concatenation of the object and parameter.
     */
    friend PString operator+(
      char  c,              ///< Character to be concatenated to.
      const PString & str   ///< String to concatenate.
    );

    /**Concatenate a string to another string, modifiying that string.

       @return
       reference to string that was concatenated to.
     */
    PString & operator+=(
      const PString & str   ///< String to concatenate.
    );

    /**Concatenate a C string to a PString, modifiying that string. The
       #cstr# parameter is typically a literal string, eg:
\begin{verbatim}
          myStr += "fred";
\end{verbatim}

       @return
       reference to string that was concatenated to.
     */
    PString & operator+=(
      const char * cstr  ///< C string to concatenate.
    );

    /**Concatenate a single character to a PString. The #ch#
       parameter is typically a literal, eg:
\begin{verbatim}
          myStr += '!';
\end{verbatim}

       @return
       new string with concatenation of the object and parameter.
     */
    PString & operator+=(
      char ch   ///< Character to concatenate.
    );


    /**Concatenate two strings to produce a third. The original strings are
       not modified, an entirely new unique reference to a string is created.
       
       @return
       new string with concatenation of the object and parameter.
     */
    PString operator&(
      const PString & str   ///< String to concatenate.
    ) const;

    /**Concatenate a C string to a PString to produce a third. The original
       string is not modified, an entirely new unique reference to a string
       is created. The #cstr# parameter is typically a literal
       string, eg:
\begin{verbatim}
          myStr = aStr & "fred";
\end{verbatim}

       This function differes from operator+ in that it assures there is at
       least one space between the strings. Exactly one space is added if
       there is not a space at the end of the first or beggining of the last
       string.

       @return
       new string with concatenation of the object and parameter.
     */
    PString operator&(
      const char * cstr  ///< C string to concatenate.
    ) const;

    /**Concatenate a single character to a PString to produce a third. The
       original string is not modified, an entirely new unique reference to a
       string is created. The #ch# parameter is typically a
       literal, eg:
\begin{verbatim}
          myStr = aStr & '!';
\end{verbatim}

       This function differes from operator+ in that it assures there is at
       least one space between the strings. Exactly one space is added if
       there is not a space at the end of the first or beggining of the last
       string.

       @return
       new string with concatenation of the object and parameter.
     */
    PString operator&(
      char ch   ///< Character to concatenate.
    ) const;

    /**Concatenate a PString to a C string to produce a third. The original
       string is not modified, an entirely new unique reference to a string
       is created. The #cstr# parameter is typically a literal
       string, eg:
\begin{verbatim}
          myStr = "fred" & aStr;
\end{verbatim}

       This function differes from operator+ in that it assures there is at
       least one space between the strings. Exactly one space is added if
       there is not a space at the end of the first or beggining of the last
       string.

       @return
       new string with concatenation of the object and parameter.
     */
    friend PString operator&(
      const char * cstr,    ///< C string to be concatenated to.
      const PString & str   ///< String to concatenate.
    );

    /**Concatenate a PString to a single character to produce a third. The
       original string is not modified, an entirely new unique reference to a
       string is created. The #c# parameter is typically a literal,
       eg:
\begin{verbatim}
          myStr = '!' & aStr;
\end{verbatim}

       This function differes from #operator+# in that it assures there is at
       least one space between the strings. Exactly one space is added if
       there is not a space at the end of the first or beggining of the last
       string.

       @return
       new string with concatenation of the object and parameter.
     */
    friend PString operator&(
      char  ch,              ///< Character to be concatenated to.
      const PString & str   ///< String to concatenate.
    );

    /**Concatenate a string to another string, modifiying that string.

       @return
       reference to string that was concatenated to.
     */
    PString & operator&=(
      const PString & str   ///< String to concatenate.
    );

    /**Concatenate a C string to a PString, modifiying that string. The
       #cstr# parameter is typically a literal string, eg:
\begin{verbatim}
          myStr &= "fred";
\end{verbatim}

       This function differes from operator+ in that it assures there is at
       least one space between the strings. Exactly one space is added if
       there is not a space at the end of the first or beggining of the last
       string.

       @return
       reference to string that was concatenated to.
     */
    PString & operator&=(
      const char * cstr  ///< C string to concatenate.
    );


    /**Concatenate a character to a PString, modifiying that string. The
       #ch# parameter is typically a literal string, eg:
\begin{verbatim}
          myStr &= '!';
\end{verbatim}

       This function differes from operator+ in that it assures there is at
       least one space between the strings. Exactly one space is added if
       there is not a space at the end of the first or beggining of the last
       string.

       @return
       reference to string that was concatenated to.
     */
    PString & operator&=(
      char ch  ///< Character to concatenate.
    );
  //@}


  /**@name Comparison operators */
  //@{
    /**Compare two strings using case insensitive comparison.

       @return
       TRUE if equal.
     */
    bool operator*=(
      const PString & str  ///< PString object to compare against.
    ) const;

    /**Compare two strings using the #PObject::Compare()# function. This
       is identical to the #PObject# class function but is necessary due
       to other overloaded versions.

       @return
       TRUE if equal.
     */
    bool operator==(
      const PObject & str  ///< PString object to compare against.
    ) const;

    /**Compare two strings using the #PObject::Compare()# function. This
       is identical to the #PObject# class function but is necessary due
       to other overloaded versions.

       @return
       TRUE if not equal.
     */
    bool operator!=(
      const PObject & str  ///< PString object to compare against.
    ) const;

    /**Compare two strings using the #PObject::Compare()# function. This
       is identical to the #PObject# class function but is necessary due
       to other overloaded versions.

       @return
       TRUE if less than.
     */
    bool operator<(
      const PObject & str  ///< PString object to compare against.
    ) const;

    /**Compare two strings using the #PObject::Compare()# function. This
       is identical to the #PObject# class function but is necessary due
       to other overloaded versions.

       @return
       TRUE if greater than.
     */
    bool operator>(
      const PObject & str  ///< PString object to compare against.
    ) const;

    /**Compare two strings using the #PObject::Compare()# function. This
       is identical to the #PObject# class function but is necessary due
       to other overloaded versions.

       @return
       TRUE if less than or equal.
     */
    bool operator<=(
      const PObject & str  ///< PString object to compare against.
    ) const;

    /**Compare two strings using the #PObject::Compare()# function. This
       is identical to the #PObject# class function but is necessary due
       to other overloaded versions.

       @return
       TRUE if greater than or equal.
     */
    bool operator>=(
      const PObject & str  ///< PString object to compare against.
    ) const;


    /**Compare a PString to a C string using a case insensitive compare
       function. The #cstr# parameter is typically a literal string,
       eg:
\begin{verbatim}
          if (myStr == "fred")
\end{verbatim}

       @return
       TRUE if equal.
     */
    bool operator*=(
      const char * cstr  ///< C string to compare against.
    ) const;

    /**Compare a PString to a C string using the ##Compare()##
       function. The #cstr# parameter is typically a literal string,
       eg:
\begin{verbatim}
          if (myStr == "fred")
\end{verbatim}

       @return
       TRUE if equal.
     */
    bool operator==(
      const char * cstr  ///< C string to compare against.
    ) const;

    /**Compare a PString to a C string using the #PObject::Compare()#
       function. The #cstr# parameter is typically a literal
       string, eg:
\begin{verbatim}
          if (myStr != "fred")
\end{verbatim}

       @return
       TRUE if not equal.
     */
    bool operator!=(
      const char * cstr  ///< C string to compare against.
    ) const;

    /**Compare a PString to a C string using the #PObject::Compare()#
       function. The #cstr# parameter is typically a literal
       string, eg:
\begin{verbatim}
          if (myStr < "fred")
\end{verbatim}

       @return
       TRUE if less than.
     */
    bool operator<(
      const char * cstr  ///< C string to compare against.
    ) const;

    /**Compare a PString to a C string using the #PObject::Compare()#
       function. The #cstr# parameter is typically a literal
       string, eg:
\begin{verbatim}
          if (myStr > "fred")
\end{verbatim}

       @return
       TRUE if greater than.
     */
    bool operator>(
      const char * cstr  ///< C string to compare against.
    ) const;

    /**Compare a PString to a C string using the #PObject::Compare()#
       function. The #cstr# parameter is typically a literal
       string, eg:
\begin{verbatim}
          if (myStr <= "fred")
\end{verbatim}

       @return
       TRUE if less than or equal.
     */
    bool operator<=(
      const char * cstr  ///< C string to compare against.
    ) const;

    /**Compare a PString to a C string using the #PObject::Compare()#
       function. The #cstr# parameter is typically a literal
       string, eg:
\begin{verbatim}
          if (myStr >= "fred")
\end{verbatim}

       @return
       TRUE if greater than or equal.
     */
    bool operator>=(
      const char * cstr  ///< C string to compare against.
    ) const;

    /**Compare a string against a substring of the object.
       This will compare at most #count# characters of the string, starting at
       the specified #offset#, against that many characters of the #str#
       parameter. If #count# greater than the length of the #str# parameter
       then the actual length of #str# is used. If #count# and the length of
       #str# are greater than the length of the string remaining from the
       #offset# then FALSE is returned.

       @return
       TRUE if str is a substring of .
     */
    Comparison NumCompare(
      const PString & str,        ///< PString object to compare against.
      PINDEX count = P_MAX_INDEX, ///< Number of chacracters in str to compare
      PINDEX offset = 0           ///< Offset into string to compare
    ) const;

    /**Compare a string against a substring of the object.
       This will compare at most #count# characters of the string, starting at
       the specified #offset#, against that many characters of the #str#
       parameter. If #count# greater than the length of the #str# parameter
       then the actual length of #str# is used. If #count# and the length of
       #str# are greater than the length of the string remaining from the
       #offset# then FALSE is returned.

       @return
       TRUE if str is a substring of .
     */
    Comparison NumCompare(
      const char * cstr,          ///< C string object to compare against.
      PINDEX count = P_MAX_INDEX, ///< Number of chacracters in str to compare
      PINDEX offset = 0           ///< Offset into string to compare
    ) const;
  //@}


  /**@name Search & replace functions */
  //@{
    /** Locate the position within the string of the character. */
    PINDEX Find(
      char ch,              ///< Character to search for in string.
      PINDEX offset = 0     ///< Offset into string to begin search.
    ) const;

    /** Locate the position within the string of the substring. */
    PINDEX Find(
      const PString & str,  ///< String to search for in string.
      PINDEX offset = 0     ///< Offset into string to begin search.
    ) const;

    /* Locate the position within the string of the character or substring. The
       search will begin at the character offset provided.
       
       If #offset# is beyond the length of the string, then the
       function will always return #P_MAX_INDEX#.
       
       The matching will be for identical character or string. If a search
       ignoring case is required then the string should be converted to a
       #PCaselessString# before the search is made.

       @return
       position of character or substring in the string, or P_MAX_INDEX if the
       character or substring is not in the string.
     */
    PINDEX Find(
      const char * cstr,    ///< C string to search for in string.
      PINDEX offset = 0     ///< Offset into string to begin search.
    ) const;

    /** Locate the position of the last matching character. */
    PINDEX FindLast(
      char ch,                     ///< Character to search for in string.
      PINDEX offset = P_MAX_INDEX  ///< Offset into string to begin search.
    ) const;

    /** Locate the position of the last matching substring. */
    PINDEX FindLast(
      const PString & str,         ///< String to search for in string.
      PINDEX offset = P_MAX_INDEX  ///< Offset into string to begin search.
    ) const;

    /**Locate the position of the last matching substring.
       Locate the position within the string of the last matching character or
       substring. The search will begin at the character offset provided,
       moving backward through the string.

       If #offset# is beyond the length of the string, then the
       search begins at the end of the string. If #offset# is zero
       then the function always returns #P_MAX_INDEX#.

       The matching will be for identical character or string. If a search
       ignoring case is required then the string should be converted to a
       #PCaselessString# before the search is made.

       @return
       position of character or substring in the string, or P_MAX_INDEX if the
       character or substring is not in the string.
     */
    PINDEX FindLast(
      const char * cstr,           ///< C string to search for in string.
      PINDEX offset = P_MAX_INDEX  ///< Offset into string to begin search.
    ) const;

    /** Locate the position of one of the characters in the set. */
    PINDEX FindOneOf(
      const PString & set,  ///< String of characters to search for in string.
      PINDEX offset = 0     ///< Offset into string to begin search.
    ) const;

    /**Locate the position of one of the characters in the set.
       The search will begin at the character offset provided.

       If #offset# is beyond the length of the string, then the
       function will always return #P_MAX_INDEX#.
       
       The matching will be for identical character or string. If a search
       ignoring case is required then the string should be converted to a
       #PCaselessString# before the search is made.

       @return
       position of character in the string, or P_MAX_INDEX if no characters
       from the set are in the string.
     */
    PINDEX FindOneOf(
      const char * cset,    ///< C string of characters to search for in string.
      PINDEX offset = 0     ///< Offset into string to begin search.
    ) const;

    /**Locate the position within the string of one of the regular expression.
       The search will begin at the character offset provided.

       If #offset# is beyond the length of the string, then the
       function will always return #P_MAX_INDEX#.
       
       @return
       position of regular expression in the string, or P_MAX_INDEX if no
       characters from the set are in the string.
     */
    PINDEX FindRegEx(
      const PRegularExpression & regex, ///< regular expression to find
      PINDEX offset = 0                 ///< Offset into string to begin search.
    ) const;

    /**Locate the position within the string of one of the regular expression.
       The search will begin at the character offset provided.

       If #offset# is beyond the length of the string, then the
       function will always return #P_MAX_INDEX#.
       
       @return
       position of regular expression in the string, or P_MAX_INDEX if no
       characters from the set are in the string.
     */
    BOOL FindRegEx(
      const PRegularExpression & regex, ///< regular expression to find
      PINDEX & pos,                     ///< Position of matched expression
      PINDEX & len,                     ///< Length of matched expression
      PINDEX offset = 0,                ///< Offset into string to begin search.
      PINDEX maxPos = P_MAX_INDEX       ///< Maximum offset into string
    ) const;


    /**Locate the substring within the string and replace it with the specifed
       substring. The search will begin at the character offset provided.

       If #offset# is beyond the length of the string, then the
       function will do nothing.

       The matching will be for identical character or string. If a search
       ignoring case is required then the string should be converted to a
       #PCaselessString# before the search is made.
     */
    void Replace(
      const PString & target,   ///< Text to be removed.
      const PString & subs,     ///< String to be inserted into the gaps created
      BOOL all = FALSE,         ///< Replace all occurrences of target text.
      PINDEX offset = 0         ///< Offset into string to begin search.
    );

    /**Splice the string into the current string at the specified position. The
       specified number of bytes are removed from the string.

       Note that this function will break the current instance from multiple
       references to the string. A new string buffer is allocated and the data
       from the old string buffer copied to it.
     */
    void Splice(
      const PString & str,  ///< Substring to insert.
      PINDEX pos,           ///< Position in string to insert the substring.
      PINDEX len = 0        ///< Length of section to remove.
    );

    /**Splice the string into the current string at the specified position. The
       specified number of bytes are removed from the string.

       Note that this function will break the current instance from multiple
       references to the string. A new string buffer is allocated and the data
       from the old string buffer copied to it.
     */
    void Splice(
      const char * cstr,    ///< Substring to insert.
      PINDEX pos,           ///< Position in string to insert the substring.
      PINDEX len = 0        ///< Length of section to remove.
    );

    /**Remove the substring from the string.

       Note that this function will break the current instance from multiple
       references to the string. A new string buffer is allocated and the data
       from the old string buffer copied to it.
     */
    void Delete(
      PINDEX start,   ///< Position in string to remove.
      PINDEX len      ///< Number of characters to delete.
    );
  //@}


  /**@name Sub-string functions */
  //@{
    /**Extract a portion of the string into a new string. The original string
       is not changed and a new unique reference to a string is returned.
       
       The substring is returned inclusive of the characters at the
       #start# and #end# positions.
       
       If the #end# position is greater than the length of the
       string then all characters from the #start# up to the end of
       the string are returned.

       If #start# is greater than the length of the string or
       #end# is before #start# then an empty string is
       returned.

       @return
       substring of the source string.
     */
    PString operator()(
      PINDEX start,  ///< Starting position of the substring.
      PINDEX end     ///< Ending position of the substring.
    ) const;

    /**Extract a portion of the string into a new string. The original string
       is not changed and a new unique reference to a string is returned.
       
       A substring from the beginning of the string for the number of
       characters specified is extracted.
       
       If #len# is greater than the length of the string then all
       characters to the end of the string are returned.

       If #len# is zero then an empty string is returned.

       @return
       substring of the source string.
     */
    PString Left(
      PINDEX len   ///< Number of characters to extract.
    ) const;

    /**Extract a portion of the string into a new string. The original string
       is not changed and a new unique reference to a string is returned.

       A substring from the end of the string for the number of characters
       specified is extracted.
       
       If #len# is greater than the length of the string then all
       characters to the beginning of the string are returned.

       If #len# is zero then an empty string is returned.

       @return
       substring of the source string.
     */
    PString Right(
      PINDEX len   ///< Number of characters to extract.
    ) const;

    /**Extract a portion of the string into a new string. The original string
       is not changed and a new unique reference to a string is returned.
       
       A substring from the #start# position for the number of
       characters specified is extracted.
       
       If #len# is greater than the length of the string from the
       #start# position then all characters to the end of the
       string are returned.

       If #start# is greater than the length of the string or
       #len# is zero then an empty string is returned.

       @return
       substring of the source string.
     */
    PString Mid(
      PINDEX start,             ///< Starting position of the substring.
      PINDEX len = P_MAX_INDEX  ///< Number of characters to extract.
    ) const;


    /**Create a string consisting of all characters from the source string
       except all spaces at the beginning of the string. The original string
       is not changed and a new unique reference to a string is returned.
       
       @return
       string with leading spaces removed.
     */
    PString LeftTrim() const;

    /**Create a string consisting of all characters from the source string
       except all spaces at the end of the string. The original string is not
       changed and a new unique reference to a string is returned.
       
       @return
       string with trailing spaces removed.
     */
    PString RightTrim() const;

    /**Create a string consisting of all characters from the source string
       except all spaces at the beginning and end of the string. The original
       string is not changed and a new unique reference to a string is
       returned.
       
       @return
       string with leading and trailing spaces removed.
     */
    PString Trim() const;


    /**Create a string consisting of all characters from the source string
       with all upper case letters converted to lower case. The original
       string is not changed and a new unique reference to a string is
       returned.
       
       @return
       string with upper case converted to lower case.
     */
    PString ToLower() const;

    /**Create a string consisting of all characters from the source string
       with all lower case letters converted to upper case. The original
       string is not changed and a new unique reference to a string is
       returned.
       
       @return
       string with lower case converted to upper case.
     */
    PString ToUpper() const;


    /** Split the string into an array of substrings. */
    PStringArray Tokenise(
      const PString & separators,
        ///< A string for the set of separator characters that delimit tokens.
      BOOL onePerSeparator = TRUE
        ///< Flag for if there are empty tokens between consecutive separators.
    ) const;
    /**Split the string into an array of substrings.
       Divide the string into an array of substrings delimited by characters
       from the specified set.
       
       There are two options for the tokenisation, the first is where the
       #onePerSeparator# is TRUE. This form will produce a token
       for each delimiter found in the set. Thus the string ",two,three,,five"
       would be split into 5 substrings; "", "two", "three", "" and "five".
       
       The second form where #onePerSeparator# is FALSE is used
       where consecutive delimiters do not constitute a empty token. In this
       case the string "  a list  of words  " would be split into 4 substrings;
       "a", "list", "of" and "words".

       There is an important distinction when there are delimiters at the
       beginning or end of the source string. In the first case there will be
       empty strings at the end of the array and in the second the delimiters
       are ignored.

       @return
       an array of substring for each token in the string.
     */
    PStringArray Tokenise(
      const char * cseparators,
        ///< A C string for the set of separator characters that delimit tokens.
      BOOL onePerSeparator = TRUE
        ///< Flag for if there are empty tokens between consecutive separators.
    ) const;

    /**Split the string into individual lines. The line delimiters may be a
       carriage return ('\r'), a line feed ('\n') or a carriage return and
       line feed pair ("\r\n"). A line feed and carriage return pair ("\n\r")
       would yield a blank line. between the characters.

       The #Tokenise()# function should not be used to split a string
       into lines as a #"\r\n"# pair consitutes a single line
       ending. The #Tokenise()# function would produce a blank line in
       between them.

       @return
       string array with a substring for each line in the string.
     */
    PStringArray Lines() const;
  //@}

  /**@name Conversion functions */
  //@{
    /**Concatenate a formatted output to the string. This is identical to the
       standard C library #sprintf()# function, but appends its
       output to the string.
       
       This function makes the assumption that there is less the 1000
       characters of formatted output. The function will assert if this occurs.

       Note that this function will break the current instance from multiple
       references to the string. A new string buffer is allocated and the data
       from the old string buffer copied to it.
       
       @return
       reference to the current string object.
     */
    PString & sprintf(
      const char * cfmt,   ///< C string for output format.
      ...                  ///< Extra parameters for #sprintf()# call.
    );

    /**Produce formatted output as a string. This is identical to the standard
       C library #sprintf()# function, but sends its output to a
       #PString#.

       This function makes the assumption that there is less the 1000
       characters of formatted output. The function will assert if this occurs.

       Note that this function will break the current instance from multiple
       references to the string. A new string buffer is allocated and the data
       from the old string buffer copied to it.
       
       @return
       reference to the current string object.
     */
    friend PString psprintf(
      const char * cfmt,   ///< C string for output format.
      ...                  ///< Extra parameters for #sprintf()# call.
    );

    /** Concatenate a formatted output to the string. */
    PString & vsprintf(
      const PString & fmt, ///< String for output format.
      va_list args         ///< Extra parameters for #sprintf()# call.
    );
    /**Concatenate a formatted output to the string. This is identical to the
       standard C library #vsprintf()# function, but appends its
       output to the string.

       This function makes the assumption that there is less the 1000
       characters of formatted output. The function will assert if this occurs.

       Note that this function will break the current instance from multiple
       references to the string. A new string buffer is allocated and the data
       from the old string buffer copied to it.
       
       @return
       reference to the current string object.
     */
    PString & vsprintf(
      const char * cfmt,   ///< C string for output format.
      va_list args         ///< Extra parameters for #sprintf()# call.
    );

    /** Produce formatted output as a string. */
    friend PString pvsprintf(
      const char * cfmt,   ///< C string for output format.
      va_list args         ///< Extra parameters for #sprintf()# call.
    );
    /**Produce formatted output as a string. This is identical to the standard
       C library #vsprintf()# function, but sends its output to a
       #PString#.

       This function makes the assumption that there is less the 1000
       characters of formatted output. The function will assert if this occurs.

       Note that this function will break the current instance from multiple
       references to the string. A new string buffer is allocated and the data
       from the old string buffer copied to it.
       
       @return
       reference to the current string object.
     */
    friend PString pvsprintf(
      const PString & fmt, ///< String for output format.
      va_list args         ///< Extra parameters for #sprintf()# call.
    );


    /**Convert the string to an integer value using the specified number base.
       All characters up to the first illegal character for the number base are
       converted. Case is not significant for bases greater than 10.

       The number base may only be from 2 to 36 and the function will assert
       if it is not in this range.

       This function uses the standard C library #strtol()# function.

       @return
       integer value for the string.
     */
    long AsInteger(
      unsigned base = 10    ///< Number base to convert the string in.
    ) const;
    /**Convert the string to an integer value using the specified number base.
       All characters up to the first illegal character for the number base are
       converted. Case is not significant for bases greater than 10.

       The number base may only be from 2 to 36 and the function will assert
       if it is not in this range.

       This function uses the standard C library #strtoul()# function.

       @return
       integer value for the string.
     */
    DWORD AsUnsigned(
      unsigned base = 10    ///< Number base to convert the string in.
    ) const;
    /**Convert the string to an integer value using the specified number base.
       All characters up to the first illegal character for the number base are
       converted. Case is not significant for bases greater than 10.

       The number base may only be from 2 to 36 and the function will assert
       if it is not in this range.

       This function uses the standard C library #strtoq()#
       or #strtoul()# function.

       @return
       integer value for the string.
     */
    PInt64 AsInt64(
      unsigned base = 10    ///< Number base to convert the string in.
    ) const;
    /**Convert the string to an integer value using the specified number base.
       All characters up to the first illegal character for the number base are
       converted. Case is not significant for bases greater than 10.

       The number base may only be from 2 to 36 and the function will assert
       if it is not in this range.

       This function uses the standard C library #strtouq()#
       or #strtoul()# function.

       @return
       integer value for the string.
     */
    PUInt64 AsUnsigned64(
      unsigned base = 10    ///< Number base to convert the string in.
    ) const;

    /**Convert the string to a floating point number. This number may be in
       decimal or exponential form. All characters up to the first illegal
       character for a floting point number are converted.

       This function uses the standard C library #strtod()#
       function.

       @return
       floating point value for the string.
     */
    double AsReal() const;
     
    /**Convert UTF-8 string to UCS-2.
       Note the resultant PWORDArray will have the trailing null included.
      */
    PWORDArray AsUCS2() const;

    /**Convert a standard null terminated string to a "pascal" style string.
       This consists of a songle byte for the length of the string and then
       the string characters following it.
       
       This function will assert if the string is greater than 255 characters
       in length.

       @return
       byte array containing the "pascal" style string.
     */
    PBYTEArray ToPascal() const;

    /**Convert the string to C literal string format. This will convert non
       printable characters to the \nnn form or for standard control characters
       such as line feed, to \n form. Any '"' characters are also escaped with
       a \ character and the entire string is enclosed in '"' characters.
       
       @return
       string converted to a C language literal form.
     */
    PString ToLiteral() const;

    /**Get the internal buffer as a pointer to unsigned characters. The
       standard "operator const char *" function is provided by the
       #PCharArray# ancestor class.

       @return
       pointer to character buffer.
     */
    operator const unsigned char *() const;

  //@}


  protected:
    void InternalFromUCS2(
      const WORD * ptr,
      PINDEX len
    );
    virtual Comparison InternalCompare(
      PINDEX offset,      // Offset into string to compare.
      char c              // Character to compare against.
    ) const;
    virtual Comparison InternalCompare(
      PINDEX offset,      // Offset into string to compare.
      PINDEX length,      // Number of characters to compare.
      const char * cstr   // C string to compare against.
    ) const;
    /* Internal function to compare the current string value against the
       specified C string.

       @return
       relative rank of the two strings.
     */

    PString(int dummy, const PString * str);
};


//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

/**This class is a variation of a string that ignores case. Thus in all
   standard comparison (#==#, #<# etc) and search
   (#Find()# etc) functions the case of the characters and strings is
   ignored.
   
   The characters in the string still maintain their case. Only the comparison
   operations are affected. So printing etc will still display the string as
   entered.
 */
01880 class PCaselessString : public PString
{
  PCLASSINFO(PCaselessString, PString);

  public:
    /**Create a new, empty, caseless string.
     */
    PCaselessString();

    /**Create a new caseless string, initialising it to the characters in the
       C string provided.
     */
    PCaselessString(
      const char * cstr   ///< C string to initialise the caseless string from.
    );

    /**Create a caseless string, with a reference to the characters in the
       normal #PString# provided. A PCaselessString may also be provided
       to this constructor.
     */
    PCaselessString(
      const PString & str  ///< String to initialise the caseless string from.
    );


    /**Assign the string to the current object. The current instance then
       becomes another reference to the same string in the #str#
       parameter.
       
       @return
       reference to the current PString object.
     */
    PCaselessString & operator=(
      const PString & str  ///< New string to assign.
    );

    /**Assign the C string to the current object. The current instance then
       becomes a unique reference to a copy of the #cstr# parameter.
       The #cstr# parameter is typically a literal string, eg:
\begin{verbatim}
          myStr = "fred";
\end{verbatim}
       @return
       reference to the current PString object.
     */
    PCaselessString & operator=(
      const char * cstr  ///< C string to assign.
    );

    /**Assign the character to the current object. The current instance then
       becomes a unique reference to a copy of the character parameter. eg:
\begin{verbatim}
          myStr = 'A';
\end{verbatim}
       @return
       reference to the current PString object.
     */
    PCaselessString & operator=(
      char ch            ///< Character to assign.
    );


  // Overrides from class PObject
    /**Make a complete duplicate of the string. Note that the data in the
       array of characters is duplicated as well and the new object is a
       unique reference to that data.
     */
    virtual PObject * Clone() const;

  protected:
  // Overrides from class PString
    virtual Comparison InternalCompare(
      PINDEX offset,      // Offset into string to compare.
      char c              // Character to compare against.
    ) const;
    virtual Comparison InternalCompare(
      PINDEX offset,      // Offset into string to compare.
      PINDEX length,      // Number of characters to compare.
      const char * cstr   // C string to compare against.
    ) const;
    /* Internal function to compare the current string value against the
       specified C string.

       @return
       relative rank of the two strings or characters.
     */

    PCaselessString(int dummy, const PCaselessString * str);
};

//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

class PStringStream;

/**This class is a standard C++ stream class descendent for reading or writing
   streamed data to or from a #PString# class.
   
   All of the standard stream I/O operators, manipulators etc will operate on
   the PStringStream class.
 */
01980 class PStringStream : public PString, public iostream
{
  PCLASSINFO(PStringStream, PString);

  public:
    /**Create a new, empty, string stream. Data may be output to this stream,
       but attempts to input from it will return end of file.

       The internal string is continually grown as required during output.
     */
    PStringStream();

    /**Create a new, empty, string stream of a fixed size. Data may be output
       to this stream, but attempts to input from it will return end of file.
       When the fixed size is reached then no more data may be output to it.
     */
    PStringStream(
      PINDEX fixedBufferSize
    );

    /**Create a new string stream and initialise it to the provided value. The
       string stream references the same string buffer as the #str#
       parameter until any output to the string stream is attempted. The
       reference is then broken and the instance of the string stream becomes
       a unique reference to a string buffer.
     */
    PStringStream(
      const PString & str   ///< Initial value for string stream.
    );

    /**Create a new string stream and initialise it with the provided value.
       The stream may be read or written from. Writes will append to the end of
       the string.
     */
    PStringStream(
      const char * cstr   ///< Initial value for the string stream.
    );

    /**Make the current string empty
      */
    virtual PString & MakeEmpty();

    /**Assign the string part of the stream to the current object. The current
       instance then becomes another reference to the same string in the #strm#
       parameter.
       
       This will reset the read pointer for input to the beginning of the
       string. Also, any data output to the string up until the asasignement
       will be lost.

       @return
       reference to the current PStringStream object.
     */
    PStringStream & operator=(
      const PStringStream & strm
    );

    /**Assign the string to the current object. The current instance then
       becomes another reference to the same string in the #str#
       parameter.
       
       This will reset the read pointer for input to the beginning of the
       string. Also, any data output to the string up until the asasignement
       will be lost.

       @return
       reference to the current PStringStream object.
     */
    PStringStream & operator=(
      const PString & str  ///< New string to assign.
    );

    /**Assign the C string to the string stream. The current instance then
       becomes a unique reference to a copy of the #cstr#
       parameter. The #cstr# parameter is typically a literal
       string, eg:
\begin{verbatim}
          myStr = "fred";
\end{verbatim}

       This will reset the read pointer for input to the beginning of the
       string. Also, any data output to the string up until the asasignement
       will be lost.

       @return
       reference to the current PStringStream object.
     */
    PStringStream & operator=(
      const char * cstr  ///< C string to assign.
    );

    /**Assign the character to the current object. The current instance then
       becomes a unique reference to a copy of the character parameter. eg:
\begin{verbatim}
          myStr = 'A';
\end{verbatim}
       @return
       reference to the current PString object.
     */
    PStringStream & operator=(
      char ch            ///< Character to assign.
    );


    /// Destroy the string stream, deleting the stream buffer
    virtual ~PStringStream();


  protected:
    virtual void AssignContents(const PContainer & cont);

  private:
    PStringStream(int, const PStringStream &) : iostream(cout.rdbuf()) { }

02094     class Buffer : public streambuf {
      public:
        Buffer(PStringStream & str, PINDEX size);
        Buffer(const Buffer & sbuf);
        Buffer & operator=(const Buffer & sbuf);
        virtual int overflow(int=EOF);
        virtual int underflow();
        virtual int sync();
#ifdef __USE_STL__
        virtual pos_type seekoff(off_type, ios_base::seekdir, ios_base::openmode = ios_base::in | ios_base::out);
        virtual pos_type seekpos(pos_type, ios_base::openmode = ios_base::in | ios_base::out);
#else
        virtual streampos seekoff(streamoff, ios::seek_dir, int);
#endif
        PStringStream & string;
        BOOL            fixedBufferSize;
    };
};


class PStringList;
class PSortedStringList;

/**This is an array collection class of #PString# objects. It has all the
   usual functions for a collection, with the object types set to
   #PString# pointers.
   
   In addition some addition functions are added that take a const
   #PString# reference instead of a pointer as most standard collection
   functions do. This is more convenient for when string expressions are used
   as parameters to function in the collection.

   See the #PAbstractArray# and #PArray# classes and
   #PDECLARE_ARRAY# macro for more information.
*/
#ifdef DOC_PLUS_PLUS
class PStringArray : public PArray {
#endif
  PDECLARE_ARRAY(PStringArray, PString);
  public:
  /**@name Construction */
  //@{
    /**Create a PStringArray from the array of C strings. If count is
       P_MAX_INDEX then strarr is assumed to point to an array of strings
       where the last pointer is NULL.
     */
    PStringArray(
      PINDEX count,                 ///< Count of strings in array
      char const * const * strarr,  ///< Array of C strings
      BOOL caseless = FALSE         ///< New strings are to be PCaselessStrings
    );
    /**Create a PStringArray of length one from the single string.
     */
    PStringArray(
      const PString & str  ///< Single string to convert to an array of one.
    );
    /**Create a PStringArray from the list of strings.
     */
    PStringArray(
      const PStringList & list  ///< List of strings to convert to array.
    );
    /**Create a PStringArray from the sorted list strings.
     */
    PStringArray(
      const PSortedStringList & list  ///< List of strings to convert to array.
    );

    /**
      * Create a PStringArray from a vector of PStrings
      */
    PStringArray(
      const std::vector<PString> & vec
    )
    {
      for (std::vector<PString>::const_iterator r = vec.begin(); r != vec.end(); ++r)
        AppendString(*r);
    }

    /**
      * Create a PStringArray from a vector of std::string
      */
    PStringArray(
      const std::vector<std::string> & vec
    )
    {
      for (std::vector<std::string>::const_iterator r = vec.begin(); r != vec.end(); ++r)
        AppendString(PString(*r));
    }

    /**
      * Create a PStringArray from an STL container
      */
    template <typename stlContainer>
    static PStringArray container(
      const stlContainer & vec
    )
    {
      PStringArray list;
      for (typename stlContainer::const_iterator r = vec.begin(); r != vec.end(); ++r)
        list.AppendString(PString(*r));
      return list;
    }

  //@}

  /**@name Overrides from class PObject */
  //@{
    /** Input the contents of the object from the stream. This is
       primarily used by the standard #operator>># function.

       The default behaviour reads '\n' separated strings until !strm.good().
     */
    virtual void ReadFrom(
      istream &strm   // Stream to read the objects contents from.
    );
  //@}

  /**@name New functions for class */
  //@{
    /**As for #GetValuesIndex()# but takes a PString argument so that
       literals will be automatically converted.

       @return
       Index of string in array or P_MAX_INDEX if not found.
     */
    PINDEX GetStringsIndex(
      const PString & str ///< String to search for index of
    ) const;

    PString operator[](
      PINDEX index  ///< Index position in the collection of the object.
    ) const;

    /**Retrieve a reference  to the object in the array. If there was not an
       object at that ordinal position or the index was beyond the size of the
       array then the function will create a new one.

       @return
       reference to the object at #index# position.
     */
    PString & operator[](
      PINDEX index  ///< Index position in the collection of the object.
    );

    /** Append a string to the array
     */
    PINDEX AppendString(
      const PString & str ///< String to append.
    );

    /**Concatenate a PString or PStringArray to the array

       @return
       The PStringArray with the new items appended
     */
    PStringArray & operator +=(const PStringArray & array);
    PStringArray & operator +=(const PString & str);


    /**Create a new PStringArray, and add PString or PStringArray to it
       a new PStringArray

       @return
       A new PStringArray with the additional elements(s)
     */
    PStringArray operator + (const PStringArray & array);
    PStringArray operator + (const PString & str);

    /**Create an array of C strings.
       If storage is NULL then this returns a single pointer that may be
       disposed of using free(). Note that each of the strings are part of the
       same memory allocation so only one free() is required.

       If storage is not null then that is used to allocate the memory.
      */
    char ** ToCharArray(
      PCharArray * storage = NULL
    ) const;
  //@}
};


/**This is a list collection class of #PString# objects. It has all the
   usual functions for a collection, with the object types set to
   #PString# pointers.
   
   In addition some addition functions are added that take a const
   #PString# reference instead of a pointer as most standard collection
   functions do. This is more convenient for when string expressions are used
   as parameters to function in the collection.

   See the #PAbstractList# and #PList# classes and
   #PDECLARE_LIST# macro for more information.
 */
#ifdef DOC_PLUS_PLUS
class PStringList : public PList {
#endif
PDECLARE_LIST(PStringList, PString);
  public:
  /**@name Construction */
  //@{
    /**Create a PStringList from the array of C strings.
     */
    PStringList(
      PINDEX count,                 ///< Count of strings in array
      char const * const * strarr,  ///< Array of C strings
      BOOL caseless = FALSE         ///< New strings are to be PCaselessStrings
    );
    /**Create a PStringList of length one from the single string.
     */
    PStringList(
      const PString & str  ///< Single string to convert to a list of one.
    );
    /**Create a PStringList from the array of strings.
     */
    PStringList(
      const PStringArray & array  ///< Array of strings to convert to list
    );
    /**Create a PStringList from the sorted list of strings.
     */
    PStringList(
      const PSortedStringList & list  ///< List of strings to convert to list.
    );
  //@}

  /**@name Overrides from class PObject */
  //@{
    /** Input the contents of the object from the stream. This is
       primarily used by the standard #operator>># function.

       The default behaviour reads '\n' separated strings until !strm.good().
     */
    virtual void ReadFrom(
      istream &strm   // Stream to read the objects contents from.
    );
  //@}

  /**@name Operations */
  //@{
    /** Append a string to the list.
     */
    PINDEX AppendString(
      const PString & str ///< String to append.
    );

    /** Insert a string into the list.
     */
    PINDEX InsertString(
      const PString & before,   ///< String to insert before.
      const PString & str       ///< String to insert.
    );

    /** Get the index of the string with the specified value.
      A linear search of list is performed to find the string value.
     */
    PINDEX GetStringsIndex(
      const PString & str   ///< String value to search for.
    ) const;

    /**Concatenate a PString or PStringArray to the list

       @return
       The PStringArray with the new items appended
     */
    PStringList & operator +=(const PStringList & list);
    PStringList & operator +=(const PString & str);


    /**Create a new PStringList, and add PString or PStringList to it
       a new PStringList

       @return
       A new PStringList with the additional elements(s)
     */
    PStringList operator + (const PStringList & array);
    PStringList operator + (const PString & str);

    /**
      * Create a PStringArray from an STL container
      */
    template <typename stlContainer>
    static PStringList container(
      const stlContainer & vec
    )
    {
      PStringList list;
      for (typename stlContainer::const_iterator r = vec.begin(); r != vec.end(); ++r)
        list.AppendString(PString(*r));
      return list;
    }
  //@}
};


/**This is a sorted list collection class of #PString# objects. It has all
   the usual functions for a collection, with the object types set to
   #PString# pointers.
   
   In addition some addition functions are added that take a const
   #PString# reference instead of a pointer as most standard collection
   functions do. This is more convenient for when string expressions are used
   as parameters to function in the collection.

   See the #PAbstractSortedList# and #PSortedList# classes and
   #PDECLARE_SORTEDLIST# macro for more information.
 */
#ifdef DOC_PLUS_PLUS
class PSortedStringList : public PSortedList {
#endif
PDECLARE_SORTED_LIST(PSortedStringList, PString);
  public:
  /**@name Construction */
  //@{
    /**Create a PStringArray from the array of C strings.
     */
    PSortedStringList(
      PINDEX count,                 ///< Count of strings in array
      char const * const * strarr,  ///< Array of C strings
      BOOL caseless = FALSE         ///< New strings are to be PCaselessStrings
    );
    /**Create a PSortedStringList of length one from the single string.
     */
    PSortedStringList(
      const PString & str  ///< Single string to convert to a list of one.
    );
    /**Create a PSortedStringList from the array of strings.
     */
    PSortedStringList(
      const PStringArray & array  ///< Array of strings to convert to list
    );
    /**Create a PSortedStringList from the list of strings.
     */
    PSortedStringList(
      const PStringList & list  ///< List of strings to convert to list.
    );
  //@}

  /**@name Overrides from class PObject */
  //@{
    /** Input the contents of the object from the stream. This is
       primarily used by the standard #operator>># function.

       The default behaviour reads '\n' separated strings until !strm.good().
     */
    virtual void ReadFrom(
      istream &strm   // Stream to read the objects contents from.
    );
  //@}

  /**@name Operations */
  //@{
    /** Add a string to the list.
        This will place the string in the correct position in the sorted list.
     */
    PINDEX AppendString(
      const PString & str ///< String to append.
    );

    /** Get the index of the string with the specified value.
      A binary search of tree is performed to find the string value.
     */
    PINDEX GetStringsIndex(
      const PString & str   ///< String value to search for.
    ) const;

    /** Get the index of the next string after specified value.
      A binary search of tree is performed to find the string greater than
      or equal to the specified string value.
     */
    PINDEX GetNextStringsIndex(
      const PString & str   ///< String value to search for.
    ) const;
  //@}

  protected:
    PINDEX InternalStringSelect(
      const char * str,
      PINDEX len,
      Element * thisElement
    ) const;
};


/**This is a set collection class of #PString# objects. It has all the
   usual functions for a collection, with the object types set to
   #PString# pointers.

   In addition some addition functions are added that take a const
   #PString# reference instead of a pointer as most standard collection
   functions do. This is more convenient for when string expressions are used
   as parameters to function in the collection.

   Unlike the normal sets, this will delete the PStrings removed from it. This
   complements the automatic creation of new PString objects when literals or
   expressions are used.

   See the #PAbstractSet# and #PSet# classes and #PDECLARE_SET#
   macro for more information.
 */
#ifdef DOC_PLUS_PLUS
class PStringSet : public PSet {
#endif
PDECLARE_SET(PStringSet, PString, TRUE);
  public:
  /**@name Construction */
  //@{
    /**Create a PStringArray from the array of C strings.
     */
    PStringSet(
      PINDEX count,                 ///< Count of strings in array
      char const * const * strarr,  ///< Array of C strings
      BOOL caseless = FALSE         ///< New strings are to be PCaselessStrings
    );
    /**Create a PStringSet containing the single string.
     */
    PStringSet(
      const PString & str  ///< Single string to convert to a list of one.
    );
  //@}

  /**@name Overrides from class PObject */
  //@{
    /** Input the contents of the object from the stream. This is
       primarily used by the standard #operator>># function.

       The default behaviour reads '\n' separated strings until !strm.good().
     */
    virtual void ReadFrom(
      istream &strm   ///< Stream to read the objects contents from.
    );
  //@}

  /**@name Operations */
  //@{
    /** Include the spcified string value into the set. */
    void Include(
      const PString & key ///< String value to add to set.
    );
    /** Include the spcified string value into the set. */
    PStringSet & operator+=(
      const PString & key ///< String value to add to set.
    );
    /** Exclude the spcified string value from the set. */
    void Exclude(
      const PString & key ///< String value to remove from set.
    );
    /** Exclude the spcified string value from the set. */
    PStringSet & operator-=(
      const PString & key ///< String value to remove from set.
    );
  //@}
};


#ifdef PHAS_TEMPLATES

/**This template class maps the PAbstractDictionary to a specific key type and
   a #PString# data type. The functions in this class primarily do all the
   appropriate casting of types.

   Note that if templates are not used the #PDECLARE_STRING_DICTIONARY#
   macro will simulate the template instantiation.
 */
template <class K> class PStringDictionary : public PAbstractDictionary
{
  PCLASSINFO(PStringDictionary, PAbstractDictionary);

  public:
  /**@name Construction */
  //@{
    /**Create a new, empty, dictionary.

       Note that by default, objects placed into the dictionary will be
       deleted when removed or when all references to the dictionary are
       destroyed.
     */
    PStringDictionary()
      : PAbstractDictionary() { }
  //@}

  /**@name Overrides from class PObject */
  //@{
    /**Make a complete duplicate of the dictionary. Note that all objects in
       the array are also cloned, so this will make a complete copy of the
       dictionary.
     */
    virtual PObject * Clone() const
      { return PNEW PStringDictionary(0, this); }
  //@}

  /**@name New functions for class */
  //@{
    /**Get the string contained in the dictionary at the #key#
       position. The hash table is used to locate the data quickly via the
       hash function provided by the key.

       The last key/data pair is remembered by the class so that subseqent
       access is very fast.

       This function asserts if there is no data at the key position.

       @return
       reference to the object indexed by the key.
     */
    const PString & operator[](const K & key) const
      { return (const PString &)GetRefAt(key); }

    /**Get the string contained in the dictionary at the #key#
       position. The hash table is used to locate the data quickly via the
       hash function provided by the key.

       The last key/data pair is remembered by the class so that subseqent
       access is very fast.

       This function returns the #dflt# value if there is no data
       at the key position.

       @return
       reference to the object indexed by the key.
     */
    PString operator()(const K & key, const char * dflt = "") const
      { if (AbstractContains(key)) return (*this)[key]; return dflt; }

    /**Determine if the value of the object is contained in the hash table. The
       object values are compared, not the pointers.  So the objects in the
       collection must correctly implement the #PObject::Compare()#
       function. The hash table is used to locate the entry.

       @return
       TRUE if the object value is in the dictionary.
     */
    BOOL Contains(
      const K & key   // Key to look for in the dictionary.
      ) const { return AbstractContains(key); }

    /**Remove an object at the specified key. The returned pointer is then
       removed using the #SetAt()# function to set that key value to
       NULL. If the #AllowDeleteObjects# option is set then the
       object is also deleted.

       @return
       pointer to the object being removed, or NULL if the key was not 
       present in the dictionary. If the dictionary is set to delete objects
       upon removal, the value -1 is returned if the key existed prior to removal
       rather than returning an illegal pointer
     */
    virtual PString * RemoveAt(
      const K & key   // Key for position in dictionary to get object.
    ) {
        PString * s = GetAt(key); AbstractSetAt(key, NULL);
        return reference->deleteObjects ? (s ? (PString *)-1 : NULL) : s;
      }

    /**Get the object at the specified key position. If the key was not in the
       collection then NULL is returned.

       @return
       pointer to object at the specified key.
     */
    virtual PString * GetAt(
      const K & key   // Key for position in dictionary to get object.
    ) const { return (PString *)AbstractGetAt(key); }

    /**Set the data at the specified ordinal index position in the dictionary.

       The ordinal position in the dictionary is determined by the hash values
       of the keys and the order of insertion.

       @return
       TRUE if the new object could be placed into the dictionary.
     */
    virtual BOOL SetDataAt(
      PINDEX index,        // Ordinal index in the dictionary.
      const PString & str  // New string value to put into the dictionary.
    ) { return PAbstractDictionary::SetDataAt(index, PNEW PString(str)); }

    /**Add a new object to the collection. If the objects value is already in
       the dictionary then the object is overrides the previous value. If the
       AllowDeleteObjects option is set then the old object is also deleted.

       The object is placed in the an ordinal position dependent on the keys
       hash function. Subsequent searches use the has function to speed access
       to the data item.

       @return
       TRUE if the object was successfully added.
     */
    virtual BOOL SetAt(
      const K & key,       // Key for position in dictionary to add object.
      const PString & str  // New string value to put into the dictionary.
    ) { return AbstractSetAt(key, PNEW PString(str)); }

    /**Get the key in the dictionary at the ordinal index position.
    
       The ordinal position in the dictionary is determined by the hash values
       of the keys and the order of insertion.

       The last key/data pair is remembered by the class so that subseqent
       access is very fast.

       @return
       reference to key at the index position.
     */
    const K & GetKeyAt(PINDEX index) const
      { return (const K &)AbstractGetKeyAt(index); }

    /**Get the data in the dictionary at the ordinal index position.
    
       The ordinal position in the dictionary is determined by the hash values
       of the keys and the order of insertion.

       The last key/data pair is remembered by the class so that subseqent
       access is very fast.

       @return
       reference to data at the index position.
     */
    PString & GetDataAt(PINDEX index) const
      { return (PString &)AbstractGetDataAt(index); }
  //@}

  protected:
    PStringDictionary(int dummy, const PStringDictionary * c)
      : PAbstractDictionary(dummy, c) { }
};


/**Begin declaration of a dictionary of strings class.
   This macro is used to declare a descendent of PAbstractList class,
   customised for a particular key type {\bf K} and data object type
   #PString#.

   If the compilation is using templates then this macro produces a descendent
   of the #PStringDictionary# template class. If templates are not being
   used then the macro defines a set of inline functions to do all casting of
   types. The resultant classes have an identical set of functions in either
   case.

   See the #PStringDictionary# and #PAbstractDictionary# classes for
   more information.
 */
#define PDECLARE_STRING_DICTIONARY(cls, K) \
  PDECLARE_CLASS(cls, PStringDictionary<K>) \
  protected: \
    cls(int dummy, const cls * c) \
      : PStringDictionary<K>(dummy, c) { } \
  public: \
    cls() \
      : PStringDictionary<K>() { } \
    virtual PObject * Clone() const \
      { return PNEW cls(0, this); } \


/**Declare a dictionary of strings class.
   This macro is used to declare a descendent of PAbstractDictionary class,
   customised for a particular key type {\bf K} and data object type
   #PString#. This macro closes the class declaration off so no additional
   members can be added.

   If the compilation is using templates then this macro produces a typedef
   of the #PStringDictionary# template class.

   See the #PStringDictionary# class and #PDECLARE_STRING_DICTIONARY#
   macro for more information.
 */
#define PSTRING_DICTIONARY(cls, K) typedef PStringDictionary<K> cls


#else // PHAS_TEMPLATES


#define PSTRING_DICTIONARY(cls, K) \
  class cls : public PAbstractDictionary { \
  PCLASSINFO(cls, PAbstractDictionary) \
  protected: \
    inline cls(int dummy, const cls * c) \
      : PAbstractDictionary(dummy, c) { } \
  public: \
    inline cls() \
      : PAbstractDictionary() { } \
    inline PObject * Clone() const \
      { return PNEW cls(0, this); } \
    inline PString & operator[](const K & key) const \
      { return (PString &)GetRefAt(key); } \
    inline PString operator()(const K & key, const char * dflt = "") const \
      { if (Contains(key)) return (PString &)GetRefAt(key); return dflt; } \
    virtual BOOL Contains(const K & key) const \
      { return AbstractContains(key); } \
    virtual PString * RemoveAt(const K & key) \
      { PString * s = GetAt(key); AbstractSetAt(key, NULL); \
        return reference->deleteObjects ? (s ? (PString *)-1 : NULL) : s; } \
    virtual PString * GetAt(const K & key) const \
      { return (PString *)AbstractGetAt(key); } \
    virtual BOOL SetDataAt(PINDEX index, const PString & str) \
      { return PAbstractDictionary::SetDataAt(index,PNEW PString(str));} \
    virtual BOOL SetAt(const K & key, const PString & str) \
      { return AbstractSetAt(key, PNEW PString(str)); } \
    inline const K & GetKeyAt(PINDEX index) const \
      { return (const K &)AbstractGetKeyAt(index); } \
    inline PString & GetDataAt(PINDEX index) const \
      { return (PString &)AbstractGetDataAt(index); } \
  }

#define PDECLARE_STRING_DICTIONARY(cls, K) \
  PSTRING_DICTIONARY(cls##_PTemplate, K); \
  PDECLARE_CLASS(cls, cls##_PTemplate) \
  protected: \
    cls(int dummy, const cls * c) \
      : cls##_PTemplate(dummy, c) { } \
  public: \
    cls() \
      : cls##_PTemplate() { } \
    virtual PObject * Clone() const \
      { return PNEW cls(0, this); } \

#endif // PHAS_TEMPLATES


/**This is a dictionary collection class of #PString# objects, keyed by an
   ordinal value. It has all the usual functions for a collection, with the
   object types set to #PString# pointers. The class could be considered
   like a sparse array of strings.

   In addition some addition functions are added that take a const
   #PString# reference instead of a pointer as most standard collection
   functions do. This is more convenient for when string expressions are used
   as parameters to function in the collection.

   See the #PAbstractDictionary# and #PStringDictionary# classes and
   #PDECLARE_DICTIONARY# and #PDECLARE_STRING_DICTIONARY# macros for
   more information.
 */
#ifdef DOC_PLUS_PLUS
class POrdinalToString : public PStringDictionary {
#endif
PDECLARE_STRING_DICTIONARY(POrdinalToString, POrdinalKey);
  public:
  /**@name Construction */
  //@{
    /// Structure for static array initialiser for class.
02834     struct Initialiser {
      /// Ordinal key for string.
02836       PINDEX key;
      /// String value for ordinal.
02838       const char * value;
    };
    /** Initialise the ordinal dictionary of strings from the static array.
     */
    POrdinalToString(
      PINDEX count,                ///< Count of strings in initialiser array
      const Initialiser * init     ///< Array of Initialiser structures
    );
  //@}

  /**@name Overrides from class PObject */
  //@{
    /** Input the contents of the object from the stream. This is
       primarily used by the standard #operator>># function.

       The default behaviour reads '\n' separated strings until !strm.good().
     */
    virtual void ReadFrom(
      istream &strm   // Stream to read the objects contents from.
    );
  //@}
};

/**This is a dictionary collection class of ordinals keyed by
   #PString# objects. It has all the usual functions for a collection,
   with the object types set to #POrdinalKey# pointers.

   In addition some addition functions are added that take a const
   #POrdinalKey# reference or a simple #PINDEX# instead of a pointer
   as most standard collection functions do. This is more convenient for when
   integer expressions are used as parameters to function in the collection.

   See the #PAbstractDicionary# and #POrdinalDictionary# classes and
   #PDECLARE_ORDINAL_DICTIONARY# macro for more information.
 */
#ifdef DOC_PLUS_PLUS
class PStringToOrdinal : public POrdinalDictionary {
#endif
PDECLARE_ORDINAL_DICTIONARY(PStringToOrdinal, PString);
  public:
  /**@name Construction */
  //@{
    /// Structure for static array initialiser for class.
    struct Initialiser {
      /// String key for ordinal.
02883       const char * key;
      /// Ordinal value for string.
02885       PINDEX value;
    };
    /** Initialise the string dictionary of ordinals from the static array.
     */
    PStringToOrdinal(
      PINDEX count,                ///< Count of strings in initialiser array
      const Initialiser * init,    ///< Array of Initialiser structures
      BOOL caseless = FALSE        ///< New keys are to be PCaselessStrings
    );
  //@}

  /**@name Overrides from class PObject */
  //@{
    /** Input the contents of the object from the stream. This is
       primarily used by the standard #operator>># function.

       The default behaviour reads '\n' separated strings until !strm.good().
     */
    virtual void ReadFrom(
      istream &strm   // Stream to read the objects contents from.
    );
  //@}
};


/**This is a dictionary collection class of #PString# objects, keyed by
   another string. It has all the usual functions for a collection, with the
   object types set to #PString# pointers.

   In addition some addition functions are added that take a const
   #PString# reference instead of a pointer as most standard collection
   functions do. This is more convenient for when string expressions are used
   as parameters to function in the collection.

   See the #PAbstractDictionary# and #PStringDictionary# classes and
   #PDECLARE_DICTIONARY# and #PDECLARE_STRING_DICTIONARY# macros for
   more information.
 */
#ifdef DOC_PLUS_PLUS
class PStringToString : public PStringDictionary {
#endif
PDECLARE_STRING_DICTIONARY(PStringToString, PString);
  public:
  /**@name Construction */
  //@{
    /// Structure for static array initialiser for class.
    struct Initialiser {
      /// String key for string.
      const char * key;
      /// String value for string.
      const char * value;
    };
    /** Initialise the string dictionary of strings from the static array.
     */
    PStringToString(
      PINDEX count,                ///< Count of strings in initialiser array
      const Initialiser * init,    ///< Array of Initialiser structures
      BOOL caselessKeys = FALSE,   ///< New keys are to be PCaselessStrings
      BOOL caselessValues = FALSE  ///< New values are to be PCaselessStrings
    );
  //@}

  /**@name Overrides from class PObject */
  //@{
    /** Input the contents of the object from the stream. This is
       primarily used by the standard #operator>># function.

       The default behaviour reads '\n' separated strings until !strm.good().
     */
    virtual void ReadFrom(
      istream &strm   // Stream to read the objects contents from.
    );
  //@}
};


/**A class representing a regular expression that may be used for locating
   patterns in strings. The regular expression string is "compiled" into a
   form that is more efficient during the matching. This compiled form
   exists for the lifetime of the PRegularExpression instance.
 */
02966 class PRegularExpression : public PObject
{
  PCLASSINFO(PRegularExpression, PObject);

  public:
  /**@name Constructors & destructors */
  //@{
    /// Flags for compiler options.
    enum {
      /// Use extended regular expressions
02976       Extended = 1,
      /// Ignore case in search.
02978       IgnoreCase = 2,
      /**If this bit is set, then anchors do not match at newline
         characters in the string. If not set, then anchors do match
         at newlines.
        */
02983       AnchorNewLine = 4
    };
    /// Flags for execution options.
    enum {
      /**If this bit is set, then the beginning-of-line operator doesn't match
         the beginning of the string (presumably because it's not the
         beginning of a line).
         If not set, then the beginning-of-line operator does match the
         beginning of the string.
      */
02993       NotBeginningOfLine = 1,
      /**Like #NotBeginningOfLine#, except for the end-of-line.  */
02995       NotEndofLine = 2
    };

    /// Create a new, empty, regular expression
    PRegularExpression();

    /** Create and compile a new regular expression pattern.
     */
    PRegularExpression(
      const PString & pattern,    ///< Pattern to compile
      int flags = IgnoreCase      ///< Pattern match options
    );

    /** Create and compile a new regular expression pattern.
     */
    PRegularExpression(
      const char * cpattern,      ///< Pattern to compile
      int flags = IgnoreCase      ///< Pattern match options
    );

    /**
      * Copy a regular expression
      */
    PRegularExpression(
      const PRegularExpression &
    );

    /**
      * Assign a regular expression
      */
    PRegularExpression & operator =(
      const PRegularExpression &
    );

    /// Release storage for the compiled regular expression.
    ~PRegularExpression();
  //@}

  /**@name Status functions */
  //@{
    /// Error codes.
03036     enum ErrorCodes {
      /// Success.
03038       NoError = 0,    
      /// Didn't find a match (for regexec).
03040       NoMatch,      

      // POSIX regcomp return error codes.  (In the order listed in the standard.)
      /// Invalid pattern.
03044       BadPattern,  
      /// Not implemented.
03046       CollateError,  
      /// Invalid character class name.
03048       BadClassType,  
      /// Trailing backslash.
03050       BadEscape,    
      /// Invalid back reference.
03052       BadSubReg,
      /// Unmatched left bracket.
03054       UnmatchedBracket, 
      /// Parenthesis imbalance.
03056       UnmatchedParen,
      /// Unmatched #\{\}#.
03058       UnmatchedBrace,
      /// Invalid contents of #\{\}#.
03060       BadBR,        
      /// Invalid range end.
03062       RangeError,  
      /// Ran out of memory.
03064       OutOfMemory,
      /// No preceding re for repetition op.
03066       BadRepitition,

      /* Error codes we've added.  */
      /// Premature end.
03070       PrematureEnd,
      /// Compiled pattern bigger than 2^16 bytes.
03072       TooBig,
      /// Unmatched ) or \); not returned from regcomp.
03074       UnmatchedRParen,
      /// Miscellaneous error
03076       NotCompiled
    };

    /**Get the error code for the last Compile() or Execute() operation.

       @return
       Error code.
     */
    ErrorCodes GetErrorCode() const;

    /**Get the text description for the error of the last Compile() or
       Execute() operation.

       @return
       Error text string.
     */
    PString GetErrorText() const;
  //@}

  /**@name Compile & Execute functions */
  //@{
    /** Compiler pattern. */
    BOOL Compile(
      const PString & pattern,    ///< Pattern to compile
      int flags = IgnoreCase      ///< Pattern match options
    );
    /**Compiler pattern.
       The pattern is compiled into an internal format to speed subsequent
       execution of the pattern match algorithm.

       @return
       TRUE if successfully compiled.
     */
    BOOL Compile(
      const char * cpattern,      ///< Pattern to compile
      int flags = IgnoreCase      ///< Pattern match options
    );


    /** Execute regular expression */
    BOOL Execute(
      const PString & str,    ///< Source string to search
      PINDEX & start,         ///< First match locations
      int flags = 0           ///< Pattern match options
    ) const;
    /** Execute regular expression */
    BOOL Execute(
      const PString & str,    ///< Source string to search
      PINDEX & start,         ///< First match locations
      PINDEX & len,           ///< Length of match
      int flags = 0           ///< Pattern match options
    ) const;
    /** Execute regular expression */
    BOOL Execute(
      const char * cstr,      ///< Source string to search
      PINDEX & start,         ///< First match locations
      int flags = 0           ///< Pattern match options
    ) const;
    /** Execute regular expression */
    BOOL Execute(
      const char * cstr,      ///< Source string to search
      PINDEX & start,         ///< First match locations
      PINDEX & len,           ///< Length of match
      int flags = 0           ///< Pattern match options
    ) const;
    /** Execute regular expression */
    BOOL Execute(
      const PString & str,    ///< Source string to search
      PIntArray & starts,     ///< List of match locations
      int flags = 0           ///< Pattern match options
    ) const;
    /** Execute regular expression */
    BOOL Execute(
      const PString & str,    ///< Source string to search
      PIntArray & starts,     ///< List of match locations
      PIntArray & ends,       ///< List of match ends
      int flags = 0           ///< Pattern match options
    ) const;
    /** Execute regular expression */
    BOOL Execute(
      const char * cstr,      ///< Source string to search
      PIntArray & starts,     ///< List of match locations
      int flags = 0           ///< Pattern match options
    ) const;
    /**Execute regular expression.
       Execute the pattern match algorithm using the previously compiled
       pattern.

       The #starts# array is filled with as many matches as will fit
       into the array. If the the array size is zero then it is set to at least
       one for the first match found.
       
       The #ends# array is set to teh ending position of each
       substring whose start is returned in the #starts# array. This
       will always be set to the same size as that array.

       @return
       TRUE if successfully compiled.
     */
    BOOL Execute(
      const char * cstr,      ///< Source string to search
      PIntArray & starts,     ///< List of match locations
      PIntArray & ends,       ///< List of match ends
      int flags = 0           ///< Pattern match options
    ) const;
  //@}

  /**@name Miscellaneous functions */
  //@{
    /**Escape all characters in the #str# parameter that have a
       special meaning within a regular expression.

       @return
       String with additional escape ('\') characters.
     */
    static PString EscapeString(
      const PString & str     ///< String to add esacpes to.
    );
  //@}

  protected:
    PString patternSaved;
    int flagsSaved;

    void * expression;
    int lastError;
};

PString psprintf(const char * cfmt, ...);

// End Of File ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

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